Изграждане на капацитет и институционализиране на структура за оценка на здравни технологии – сравнителен анализ на външната макро среда между България и добрите международни практики

  • Ралица Райчева
  • Румен Стефанов
Ключови думи: оценка на здравни технологии, ОЗТ капацитет, ОЗТ структура, характеристики на средата

Резюме

Въведение: Създаването на организация за оценка на здравни технологии (ОЗТ) или стартирането на ефективна ОЗТ програма, която да информира ключови политически решения, е амбициозна мисия. В литературата не съществуват стандартни модели или подходи, поради големите разлики в средата, в която ще се развива ОЗТ капацитета. Всяка страна, регион и провинция е необходимо да открие своя собствена, възможно най-ефикасна алтернатива, подходяща за здравния и организационен контекст, в който съществува.

Цел: Целта е да се систематизират, изучат и анализират най-добрите практики за оценка на здравни технологии (ОЗТ) в глобален мащаб и да се извърши съпоставка на характеристиките на средата с постигнатото в България ниво на изграждане на капацитет и институционализиране на ОЗТ.

Материали и методи: В периода 2013–2015 г. е проведено международно уеб-базирано анкетно проучване сред 312 НТА организации, със седалище в 83 страни, включително 11 международни организации. Данните са получени от полуструктуриран въпросник, който съдържа общо 106 въпроса – 17 закрити, 31 открити въпроси и 58 полуоткрити въпроса, разпределени в шест раздела, един панел и два сегмента за набиране на допълнителна информация. Анализът на данните се реализирана със статистическия пакет на софтуера за социални науки IBM SPSS Statistics v.22. Систематизирането и статистическата обработка на отворените въпроси бе постигната със Microsoft Office Excel 2013, Provalis Research QDA Miner 4 и WordStat 7.

Резултати: Общо бяха попълнени 111 въпросници (35.58% възвращаемост) от 39 държави на 5 континента. Изграждането на капацитет и институционализирането започва от макросредата с идентифициране на потребността от създаване на ОЗТ структура на най-високо политическо и административно ниво. Макросредата се свързва и с други два основополагащи за стартиране на ОЗТ структура елементи – нормативна база и икономическо ниво. Необходимо е и определянето на рамката и съответните характеристики на институционалното, физическо/технологичното и социално-културното ниво, за да се завърши цялостната инфраструктура на външната за извършване на ОЗТ среда.

Заключение: Улесняването на изграждане на капацитет и осигуряването на устойчиво развитие на ОЗТ структура на национално ново изисква детайлно опознаване на външната среда – законодателство, потребности на вземащите решения, политическия интерес и т.н., за да се очертаят възможните конфликти и бариери и да се изведат решения въз основа опита на други организации. За преодоляване на препятствията е важно глобалното и взаимосвързано възприемане на проблемите, без съсредоточаване върху само един ограничаващ фактор.

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Дата на публикуване
2017-03-15
Цитиране като
1.
Райчева Р, Стефанов Р. Изграждане на капацитет и институционализиране на структура за оценка на здравни технологии – сравнителен анализ на външната макро среда между България и добрите международни практики. Редки болести и лекарства сираци [интернет]. 15Мар2017 [цитиран 16Сеп2019];8(1):10-6. Available from: http://journal.raredis.org/index.php/RBLS/article/view/31
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